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Consider to what extent your design follows precedents (or deliberately deviates from them) and the reasons why

For this you are required to choose a building from the first half of the semester (Western architecture 1650 – 1900 AD) and imagine that you are its architect/designer and that you are writing a letter to your patron/client which will accompany a plan and model of your building to outline the challenges inherent in the project and to explain in detail how your design addresses them. In particular you should focus on what architectural decisions you made during the design process and why. Here are some suggestions of topics that you might consider addressing (note that there might be others as they will vary from building): function, response to site, form, materials, constructional techniques, precedents, style and expression. Think about who the patron is, and what decisions might have already been taken (by the patron or someone else) before you received the commission. Consider to what extent your design follows precedents (or deliberately deviates from them) and the reasons why. Focus on the questions that would be of interest to a reader of the same period / culture  trying to understand why you designed it in the way that you did. This is an opportunity to think about what issues were uppermost in the mind of the original architect. Do not write in an “old-fashioned” language but in clear and expressive modern English using your own words. You may use the first person if you wish. Quotations should not be used and citations should not be needed; an appropriate bibliography, however, should be appended

Disaster  Recovery and Business Continuity (DR/BC) Plan

Great progress has been made regarding the creation of the Disaster  Recovery and Business Continuity (DR/BC) Plan. This assignment will  address implementation issues such as reviewing policies, training, and  testing methodologies. In addition, preparation for implementation will  include mitigation plans prior to an event, during an event, and after  an event.

For this assignment, you will work on creating the section of your  DR/BC Plan that addresses implementation and testing. The topics that  must be covered are mitigation plans prior to an event, mitigation plans  during an event, mitigation plans after an event, policies, training,  the emergency response team, and steps to restore critical systems.

Week 4: DR/BC Plan Implementation

The project deliverables are as follows:

  • Update the DR/BC Plan title page with the new date.
  • Update the previously completed sections based on the instructor’s feedback.
    • Mitigation plans
      • Prior to an event
        • What steps can be taken prior to an event or prior to testing of DR/BC tactics to minimize any loss of business continuity?
      • During an event
        • Once a “jeopardy” situation has arisen, whether unintentionally  caused by normal business activity or caused by a manmade or natural  event, describe the steps that should be taken to control the situation.
      • After an event
        • After the event has ended, what are the steps and actions that must  be taken, and how do you learn from this event to prevent reoccurrences?
    • Policies
      • Research, identify, and document the various policies and procedures that need to be considered for inclusion in a DR/BC Plan.
      • Who will be responsible for writing these procedures and policies?
      • What approvals are required for such procedures and policies?
    • Training
      • What training is required? Consider the following groupings at a minimum:
        • Executive
        • DR/BC team
        • Middle managers
        • Department heads
        • Employees
        • Suppliers
        • Other
    • Emergency response team
      • Research and define the emergency response team as it pertains to your company.
        • Who should be included?
        • What roles do they play?
        • What are their responsibilities?
        • What triggers the ERT going into action?

What are the relevant laws that govern privacy in the workplace?

In addition to the readings assigned for Module 4, using the Argosy University online library resources or the Internet, locate and read two to three other articles on worker rights and privacy in the workplace. Share your observations, early conclusions, reflections, and questions in this discussion.

Respond to the following questions:

  • What are the relevant laws that govern privacy in the workplace?
  • How can workers take advantage of the protections that these laws provide?

Submission Details:

  • By the due date assigned, in a minimum of 500 words, post a summary of your findings to this Discussion Area. Support your work by citing sources according to APA standards.
  • Through the end of the module, respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts and respond by drawing comparisons between their findings and yours.


Each student must complete the above case study on page 471 of the e-Text and submit  it online through the BLACKBOARD to the professor (the same way as you submit assignment). This Case Study  can be submitted at any time prior to the due date assigned but will not be accepted after midnight on Saturday, November 17 (due date).

  • This case analysis must be submitted via the blackboard (not attachment) and must conform to the high standards established in Berkeley composition  classes and expected of International Trade student.
  • This case study worth 30% of your final grade.
  • Format and length: NOT  include case study title or topic, at least 3 single-spaced pages. Use proper APA citation format. If other sources of information are also used, which is encouraged,  give bibliographic references.
  • Remember, plagiarism is not permitted! Cutting & pasting from literature sources into your  paper without acknowledgement of the source is considered plagiarism. You must read your source material and add the concepts to your case study using your own words. Plagiarism will cause your paper to be marked “F”.
  • Analysis/Responses  to the case (Total of 3 single-spaced pages)
  • This  case study will be submitted in writing at the dates indicated above and in the course syllabus.

Case  Study Requirements


  • Analyze the case completely using the information in the case and information in the various chapters in the  e-Text. Your analysis should not be a short response to the case. Rather, it should be a more detailed write up. This is where you demonstrate how much you understand the material. The grade for this case depends heavily on how you respond to the issues and  or problems shown in the case. Include historical/current/comparative information provided in the case, analysis of key elements or factors affecting the issue etc.

A  summary of the evaluation criteria:

  • The written papers will be judged on both the quality of the content (i.e., that you respond directly and correctly to the issues in the  case and that you communicate in a clear and concise way what is important in the case) and on the quality of the composition (i.e., grammar, word usage, organization, etc.).
  • You must do your own work to enable you learn from the case study. Use of someone else’s work  – either professional work or another student’s work – will mean an “F” for the case study, and possibly for the course.
  • Use Berkeley College’s guidelines for written papers, including APA citation format.

Conclusion (2-3 paragraphs): A brief summary of the situation and why you responded the way you did, what could have been  done differently etc.

Determine the role of public leadership in influencing the operations of public organizations and decisions of public administrators.


Leaders need to understand essential elements that define a greater understanding of important processes that determine positive development. Leaders have complex roles which they are expected to accomplish regardless of the underlying challenges. An effective leader is not all about having the best leadership qualities, but it involves having an equal engagement on the underlying traits and individual behavior to understand that successful development is based on strong commitment across all aspects of personal well-being. Therefore, good leaders can adequately assess the needs of their followers and make strategic decisions that have a positive influence on the decisions that are made. Thus, successful leadership encompasses different concepts, which include leadership style qualities of the followers and the current situation. The diversity of a given leadership approach integrates essential concepts that are essential in improving the underlying level of commitment. Comment by Kristie Roberts-Lewis: Why specifically? Comment by Kristie Roberts-Lewis: Good introduction

Public and Behavioral Leadership Theories

Public leadership focuses on developing a greater need to evaluate different elements that define a highly effective leadership under which it is possible to make better decisions that can ensure the development of important concepts which represent a greater organization development. The leadership theories that define public leaders include trait and behavioral approaches. These theories provide an understanding of important elements which define a greater understanding of important factors that determine a highly successful engagement (Giltinane, 2013). Trait theory highlight that people are born with inherited traits thus some of the characteristics are adequately suited to leadership. Behavioral leadership theory assumes that leaders are made thus anyone can learn to be a leader. Leadership integrates essential elements which help define a greater emphasis on critical factors that determine better and positive direction. Therefore, public leaders provide focus on these theories in making their determination regarding the influence they have within their respective organizational development (Sajjadi, Karimkhani, & Mehrpour, 2014). Comment by Kristie Roberts-Lewis: Citation

Leadership style focuses on specific elements which define a greater understanding of particular features which are integrated within an organizational context where it is possible to make greater elements that illustrate specific concepts that define positive organization development. The critical leadership styles that are commonly employed by public leaders include authoritarian and democratic leadership. Authoritarian leadership style where the leader makes decisions without consulting. Decisions are imposed on followers. Authoritarian does not focus on achieving the needs of the followers because it identifies specific leadership traits. There is a high level of discontent among followers (Halaychik & Halaychik, 2016). Comment by Kristie Roberts-Lewis: And include? Comment by Kristie Roberts-Lewis: According to whom?

Democratic leadership style is a more diverse leadership strategy which focuses on identifying essential needs within an organization where it is possible to define a better understanding of positive development within an organization. Democratic leaders allow for interactive leadership considering that decisions that are made are defined based on the needs of all employees who form a crucial part of organization interaction. This style of leadership includes essential elements that define positive development. The development of critical factors that determine positive development should integrate distinct concepts that can provide a strong basis for the existing needs (Bhattacharyya & Jha, 2018). Comment by Kristie Roberts-Lewis: Citation Comment by Kristie Roberts-Lewis: For example

The level of satisfaction among employees is very high considering that they integrate essential elements that define a greater understanding of fundamental concepts that describe positive values. Building a strong relationship between employees and employers help make better decisions as well as spur professional development among employees. Developing teams within any field is usually a painful process especially considering that it entails the integration of diverse elements such as different individual personality and behavioral wellbeing that need to be evaluated to achieve common interests. Decision making within teams is crucial since it creates a solid focus on the underlying issues, which can help in making an accurate determination of the different problems that need to be controlled (Klonsky, 2013).

Examples of Trait and Behavioral Theory.

The different approaches that public leaders have in leadership integrate essential concepts that help in creating a better focus on better elements that define positive development. Trait theory highlights that leaders are born thus it is difficult to learn certain aspects of leadership because they are inherited. Successful leaders understand what needs to be done at all times and do not always seek advice because they know what needs to be done in creating a profoundly transformed understanding based on the underlying values and personality traits that define leadership (Mango, 2018). Comment by Kristie Roberts-Lewis: Such as

The reaction of leaders under pressure define the level of success which is essential to evaluate and provide a higher evaluation of significant elements that help explain a greater understanding on better organizational needs. Leaders are expected to be experts in their organization since they should serve as role models in promoting professional development among employees. Thus, being intelligent, anxious or dishonest are characteristics that an individual is born with. These negative traits limit the ability of an individual to define better elements that define positive organizational development (Landis & Hill, 2014).

Behavioral theory provides an understanding of essential elements within the society that help define an individual development. Even though individuals have inherited traits, learning helps shape these traits while eliminating negative ones so that an individual can be successful. Leadership development help leaders learn specific ways to deal with diverse workplace which define a highly interactive workplace. Leaders must understand the needs of their followers to integrate better measures that represent a greater understanding of the underlying outcomes. Different processes that are put in place which influence individual wellbeing based on the existing level of interaction influence own behavior (Bhattacharyya & Jha, 2018). Comment by Kristie Roberts-Lewis: According to whom?

Leadership entails how people behave and interact with others, and thus there is no specialty in individual behavior where they are considered leaders. Successful leadership requires the ideal combination of leaders, followers, and situations. Leaders who understand the needs of their followers focus on establishing specific concepts, which define a highly strong understanding of essential outcomes. Therefore, consideration of these processes is crucial in evaluating necessary measures, which represent a powerful operational setting (Singh, 2015).

Understanding human behavior is a very complicated aspect, which needs critical focus since being in a position to effectively relate human behavior and their action requires a critical understanding of how human behavior can be influenced. Being in a place to understand how individuals react requires high-level focus which will be effectively engaged to provide positive engagement. Human reaction is a process, which takes into consideration many things, and thus the inability to understand the underlying process makes it very difficult to understand why individuals react differently to a similar situation (Mango, 2018).

Thus, when considering the behavioral theory, cognition, and behavior interact to provide a conducive environment where it is possible to integrate better measures that define positive leadership development. The social environment plays a crucial role in creating a very diverse emphasis on critical elements that define own behavior. These concepts will be essential in identifying successful leadership concepts which define a stronger focus on improving the level of interaction which enhances key leadership traits (Halaychik & Halaychik, 2016).

Effectiveness of Leadership Styles

Leadership styles help define key aspects which help establish a greater focus on essential leadership concepts that can be explained within a given setting. Authoritarian leadership style is unique and promotes unique traits considering that it is not built on a friendly interaction between a leader and followers. A leader does decision making while followers have no say but instead follow the outlined development pattern. This leadership style, however, does not build professional development among followers thus it is likely to create disharmony between leaders and followers. However, the leader is responsible for success and loss based on the established goals. Authoritarian leaders are controlling and do not accept criticism (Singh, 2015). Comment by Kristie Roberts-Lewis: A citation is needed here

Democratic leaders are more effective considering that they help create a more diverse leadership approach since leaders and followers are responsible for organization success or failure. The positivity that is cultivated within a democratic style of leaders outlines important processes that help understand better elements which define positive change. The level of commitment within a workplace setting help ensures that better measures are put in place to help achieve better outcomes. Thus, democratic leaders understand their roles considering that they inspire their followers to achieve success (Bhattacharyya & Jha, 2018).

How the United States should deal with international terrorism in the future!

The position paper should be a TEN page paper in 12

-point font (Times New Roman or Arial) with one inch margins.  Please use the CHICAGO CITATION STYLE.  In the position paper you will choose a topic in U.S. Foreign Policy and argue a position in regards to that topic.

international terrorism in the future.  You will need to consult and cite to a minimum of FIVE SCHOLARLY SOURCES  in order to support your position.

Prison reforms

President Trump has made prison reform one of his legislative agenda items.  He has argued that more money is needed for jobs training, education, and rehabilitation for those who are incarcerated to better able them to integrate back into society when their sentences are done.  Currently the prison reform bill that passed the House of Representatives ( (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.  authorizes funding for these types of programs.  The Senate version of the bill is somewhat different however, it includes funding for these programs but also addresses the issue of mandatory sentencing- which many claim has led to mass incarceration, particularly of young black males, for non-violent offenses- that is currently stalled in committee.  President Trump has argued for the Senate version.  However, if the Senate removes the sentencing reform component and passes the House version, should he sign it because it achieves some of what he wants?  Or should he veto it because it doesn’t include the sentencing reform?  Why or why not?  And should he continue to advocate for prison reform or is this not an important issue?


As always please respond to at least two other students’ posts.

Student 1: Prison reform is absolutely an important issue and the President should address this. There is many flaws in the current prison system, that does more harm than good. I feel Trump shouldn’t sign the bill without the sentencing reform. Both issues go hand in hand. One of the biggest problems in prison is they’re over crowded, mainly due to mandatory sentencing. Both issues need to be resolved in order to completely eliminate the problem. In today’s society prison and sentencing reform is very important, especially with our country being divided. Black men particularly are being arrested for misdemeanor crimes and given ridiculous amount of time. A lot of times these non violent offenders aren’t bad people, they are just trying to survive in a country that makes it difficult for them. When people get out of prison they have nothing but responsibilities.  Most business rather not hire someone with a criminal background. A lot of men and women get out of jail with the intent to live their lives right but no one will give them a chance. People have children but no job, hungry with no food, debt and no money. Without a chance it gives some people no choice but to do something illegal just to survive. Prison reform could change this vicious cycle of many offenders lives. I hope the Trump will do something positive and make a difference by fighting for prison and sentencing reform.

Student 2: What I think about Trump is that he does not want the senate to remove the sentencing reform, he is waiting for them to pass that as well as the bill is passed by the House for the prison reform, and I do not think that he is going to sign without  sentencing reform because last Friday he announced to sign that bill promised to sign bipartisan prison reform legislation currently working its way through Congress that could free thousands of prisoners. He said that because the package, which would immediately release 4,000 federal prisoners, and  the bill would also expand compassionate release, giving elderly and terminally ill inmates a path home, and invest tens of millions in re-entry programs.

Furthermore, the sentencing reform is important because offers federal inmates more opportunities to prepare for freedom and rewards them with more “good-time credit” for behaving and participating in education and training programs. The measure, called the First Step Act, would provide a faster path to release for almost all federal inmates, many of whom would see months shaved off their release dates immediately, thanks to changes that would apply retroactively. According to the news last Friday, Trump said that “adding the sentencing reform to the First Step Act would be an important bipartisan win”.

So, the Trump supporters are trying to negotiate with the senate to pass that into law, like the House did pass that bill and would be very successful.